Saturday, September 7, 2019

Statistics Case Study - Desalination Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Statistics - Desalination - Case Study Example However, a key hindrance to this noble objective is the cost factor. This paper presents some of the basic assumptions leading to estimation of the $ cost per/m3 of the desalinated water the case of study being the City of Cambria which is situated on the central coast of California. Generally this definitive question lacks basic answers due to the fact that multiple factors are believed to influence the costs incurred in desalination of water. However, various assumptions assist in estimation of costs in this case. Firstly, it is assumed that the desalination process takes a typical approach as described in the diagram below; However, the processes do not form the cost centers with regard to the project at hand. The project cost drivers are rather classified differently in order to attain the estimated production cost. It is assumed that these cost drivers remain relatively the same irrespective of the project despite variance associated with other factors and hence amount to cost v ariations (Bauman 56). In the figure below are the cost categories assumed to affect the SWRO desalination project. It is assumed that that horizontal and slant wells which are comparable to open intake will be used. Although, they have typically higher costs, they offer the longest-running history of installation as well as reliability supportive of development of a full scale desalination facility. Additionally, the costs relating to disposal of concentrate stream are site specific and as such the costs estimates provided are averages assumed to be effective (Digiano and Heime 1667). The costs also include the conveyance that links the desalination plant to the point of disposal. These are similarly highly variable as a result of the varied conveyance distance and terrain and hence constitute a large portion of the disposal costs. With regard to pre-treatment, there is a perceived dependence on the quality of feed water. For instance, an open ocean feed is expected to have much mo re levels of suspended materials and impurities as compared to well-sourced water. Typically, costs are expected to lie in the range of between US$ 0.5MM to US$ 1.5MM per MGD (Digiano and Heime 1667). Costs are also affected with the feed water temperature, cleanliness of the source water, as well as the ambient salinity fluctuations. For instance, when the SWRO facility planned for the Northern part may treat seawater that averagely measures 10 degrees colder as compared to a SWRO facility located to the Southern part; there would be a rise in feed pressure by between 10 and 15% for an equivalent production value to be attained. Throughput capacity of a facility for desalination has an effect on the size as well as the number of equipment required, in addition to the space required to locate a treatment plant. The cost of situating a facility closer to the point from where it is made use of as well as a suitable power source needs to be weighed against intake/discharge pipeline eas ements, costs of transmission line, construction materials, permits issued, labor used, as well as maintenance costs .linked to intake/discharge or distribution service location (Gumerman and Hasen 34). Based on material cost online, it is estimated that a 20-mile distribution system that delivers 50 MGD would result into an increase of between 15 to 30% of the entire cost of project capital as compared to a 2-mile pipeline (Gumerman and Hasen 35). Permitting as well as regulatory issues also impact on the cost of the project in entirety. This often

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